Stoo Sepp

Mona Wong

Vincent Hoogerheide

Juan C. Castro-Alonso

Use the sliders below each image to scrub through example diagrams.

Instructor Visible Effect

When teaching online instructor presence is crucial to establishing community through social connections. Additionally, when presenting information through video or multimedia, a visible instructor who gestures, or provides other visible cues to guide attention can support learning.


When presenting novel information to learners, ensure that auditory and written explanations do not replicate already-presented visual information exactly, but instead highlight key points and serve to enhance learner understanding. If redundant information is present, consider removing it.

Tracing Effect

When studying visual learning materials such as diagrams or charts, teachers can encourage students to trace or use other hand gestures if they find it beneficial for their own learning.

Signalling principle

When presenting novel information, add visual cues to guide learner attention to key areas either by using colour, symbols or text on diagrams.


When using multimedia, ensure that auditory (verbal) explanations support visual materials (text or images) without being redundant.

Example-based learning

In STEM domains that involve problem- solving based on established rules and sequences, provide worked out examples for students to study in conjunction with practice tasks / questions.

Split Attention Effect

When presenting visual information such as diagrams or graphs with explanatory text, place text within the diagram, at spatially nearby locations, instead of off to the side or below, like a map legend.

First Person Perspective EFFECT

In learning domains that involve procedural motor tasks such as learning a new skill using one’s hands, presenting video demonstrations from the first person, instead of the third person perspective, can support learning.

Spacing Effect

When learning online, allow time for learners to ‘reset’, allowing space for them to rest and replenish their cognitive resources before continuing, either in a synchronous learning environment or asynchronous lessons.

Transient information effect

When using multimedia materials, ensure that new concepts are not covered too quickly, and instead slow down the presentation, ‘chunk’ information into smaller, more digestible resources, or allow students agency to control playback of these materials.

Generative LEarning

In contrast to passive absorption of novel concepts and traditional studying techniques, learners benefit from generation and creation of their own understanding. Teachers can encourage active engagement with new ideas through summarising, practice testing, and the creation of video tutorials to teach others.

Human movement effect

Like the first-person perspective effect, when presenting procedural motor tasks for students to learn, use animations, and present them from a first-person perspective.

All content on this page is licensed under the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 License unless otherwise noted.

CC Attribution:
“Shifting Online: 12 Tips for Online Teaching Derived from Contemporary Educational Psychology Research” by Stoo Sepp, Mona Wong, Vincent Hoogerheide, Juan C. Castro-Alonso is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
APA Citation:
Sepp, S., Wong, M., Hoogerheide, V., Castro-Alonso, J.C.(2021) Shifting Online: 12 Tips for Online Teaching Derived from Contemporary Educational Psychology Research. Manuscript submitted for publication.